Who is Responsible for Filing ROC? Understanding E-Forms and the ROC Filing Process on MCA

ROC Filing Process
Author name: Neetu Mishra
Created date: 04-10-2023 05:43 PM
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In the intricate world of business and corporate compliance, understanding the responsibilities and processes associated with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) filing is crucial. ROC filing is a mandatory requirement for businesses registered under the Companies Act, and it involves submitting various documents and forms to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) in India. This comprehensive guide aims to demystify the ROC filing process, shed light on who bears the responsibility for filing, and provide valuable insights into the E-Forms used in this crucial compliance procedure.

The Registrar of Companies (ROC) plays a pivotal role in regulating and overseeing the corporate entities registered under the Companies Act, 2013, in India. ROC filing is the process of submitting various documents and forms to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) to ensure compliance with statutory requirements. This article aims to unravel the complexities surrounding ROC filing, providing clarity on who holds the responsibility and how the process works.

The Role of the Registrar of Companies (ROC)

The ROC is a governmental office responsible for maintaining a registry of companies and ensuring they comply with statutory and regulatory requirements. It serves as a repository of essential information related to businesses, including their financial records, annual returns, and changes in corporate structure.

Legal Framework for ROC Filings

ROC filings are governed by the Companies Act, 2013, and its rules and regulations. These laws lay down the framework for the mandatory filing of various documents and forms to keep the government and stakeholders informed about a company's activities.

Who is Responsible for Filing ROC?

ROC filing involves several stakeholders, each with specific responsibilities. Here are the key parties responsible for ensuring ROC compliance:

Directors and Board of Directors

The board of directors of a company holds primary responsibility for ensuring that ROC filings are accurate and submitted on time. Directors must oversee the entire process and authorize the submission of essential documents.

Company Secretary

A company secretary, if appointed, plays a crucial role in preparing and filing ROC documents. They are responsible for maintaining the company's statutory registers, minutes of meetings, and ensuring timely compliance with ROC requirements.


Auditors are responsible for verifying the accuracy of financial statements and annual returns before they are submitted to the ROC. Their role is critical in upholding the transparency and integrity of financial reporting.

Types of ROC Filings

ROC filings encompass a wide range of documents and forms. Some of the most common filings include:

Annual Returns

Companies must file their annual returns, which provide a comprehensive overview of their operations, financial status, and ownership structure.

Financial Statements

Financial statements, including balance sheets and profit and loss accounts, must be submitted to the ROC to provide insights into a company's financial health.

Change in Company Name

If a company decides to change its name, it must file the necessary documents with the ROC to update its official records.

Change in Registered Office

Any change in the registered office address of a company must be reported to the ROC to ensure that legal notices and communications reach the company at its new location.

Understanding E-Forms

ROC filings have transitioned into the digital age, with the introduction of E-Forms. These electronic forms have streamlined the filing process, making it more efficient and convenient for businesses.

E-Form Types

Several E-Forms cater to different ROC filing requirements. Here are some of the key E-Forms used in ROC filings:

E-Form MGT-7

This form is used for filing the annual return of a company. It contains details about the company's shareholding structure, board of directors, and key financial information.

E-Form AOC-4

E-Form AOC-4 is used for filing financial statements with the ROC. It provides insights into a company's financial health, including its assets, liabilities, and profits.

E-Form INC-22

When a company changes its registered office address within the same state, E-Form INC-22 is used to notify the ROC of the address change.

E-Form ADT-1

E-Form ADT-1 is used for filing the appointment of auditors with the ROC. It ensures transparency and compliance in the auditing process.

The ROC Filing Process on MCA

Understanding the ROC filing process on the MCA portal is essential for timely and accurate submissions. Here's an overview of the process:

Online Registration

Companies must register on the MCA portal to access E-Forms and submit ROC filings online.

Digital Signatures

Digital signatures are mandatory for signing E-Forms. Companies must obtain a Class 2 Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) from authorized agencies.

Filing Documents

Once registered and equipped with a digital signature, companies can proceed to fill out the necessary E-Forms with accurate information.

Payment of Fees

ROC filing involves the payment of prescribed fees. The MCA portal provides various payment options to facilitate this step.

Compliance Timelines

Each ROC filing has specific due dates, and companies must adhere to these timelines to avoid penalties and legal repercussions. Timely filing ensures that stakeholders are informed and business operations remain transparent.

Consequences of Non-Compliance

Failure to comply with ROC filing requirements can result in severe consequences, including legal actions, fines, and even the striking off of the company's name from the register.

Tips for Smooth ROC Filing

To streamline the ROC filing process and ensure compliance, companies can consider the following tips:

  1. Maintain accurate records and documentation.
  2. Appoint a qualified company secretary.
  3. Stay informed about regulatory changes.
  4. Utilize professional assistance when needed.


In conclusion, ROC filing is an integral part of corporate compliance in India. Understanding the responsibilities and processes associated with ROC filing is essential for maintaining transparency, upholding legal standards, and avoiding penalties. By following the guidelines and using E-Forms efficiently, businesses can ensure seamless ROC compliance.

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